Marriage and the Eucharist: What We Believe and Problems with Amoris Laetitia


Image via, CC0 Public Domain.


When we say “I do” at the altar, the Church out of respect for our ability to freely choose our vocation, takes us at our word. When we promise before family, friends, and God that we want to enter into marriage “for better or worse, for richer or poorer, in sickness and in health, until death do us part,” we actually create a bond so strong that only death itself can dissolve it.

We believe that marriage is life-long and also that contraception has no place in the marital relationship. Without the possibility of “help” from contraception and divorce, marriage can appear to our modern eyes as an untenable reality. However, because of the grace available to us through Jesus’ sacrifice on the cross, we have been given the strength to remain faithful to our promise to God and our spouse, come what may. Christ’s ultimate gift of himself to us in turn allows us to give ourselves to others. His sacrifice on Calvary has restored the original meaning of marriage.

The Catechism of the Catholic Church says:

In his preaching Jesus unequivocally taught the original meaning of the union of man and woman as the Creator willed it from the beginning: permission given by Moses to divorce one’s wife was a concession to the hardness of hearts. The matrimonial union of a man and woman is indissoluble: God himself has determined it: “what therefore God has joined together, let no man put asunder.”

This unequivocal insistence on the indissolubility of the marriage bond may have left some perplexed and could seem to be a demand impossible to realize. [In fact the disciples who heard this teaching were surprised and taken aback by it (Mt 19:10).] However, Jesus has not placed on spouses a burden impossible to bear, or too heavy—heavier than the Law of Moses. By coming to restore the original order of creation disturbed by sin, he himself gives the strength and grace to live marriage in the new dimension of the Reign of God. It is by following Christ, renouncing themselves, and taking up their crosses that spouses will be able to “receive” the original meaning of marriage and live it with the help of Christ. This grace of Christian marriage is a fruit of Christ’s cross, the source of all Christian life (CCC 1614-15).

The Eucharist

We also believe that at every Mass, the bread and wine are turned into the Body, Blood, Soul, and Divinity of Jesus, to be consumed by us in order to strengthen our love for Him and others. Our reception of the Eucharist signifies our communion with God and His Church. Because we are uniting ourselves to Him in such a radical way, we need to be in a state of grace—free from mortal sin—in order to not “eat and drink judgment” upon ourselves (1 Cor 11).

The Catechism says:

As bodily nourishment restores lost strength, so the Eucharist strengthens our charity, which tends to be weakened in daily life; and this living charity wipes away venial sins. By giving himself to us Christ revives our love and enables us to break our disordered attachments to creatures and root ourselves in him:

Since Christ died for us out of love, when we celebrate the memorial of his death at the moment of sacrifice we ask that love may be granted to us by the coming of the Holy Spirit. We humbly pray that in the strength of this love by which Christ willed to die for us, we, by receiving the gift of the Holy Spirit, may be able to consider the world as crucified for us, and to be ourselves as crucified to the world…Having received the gift of love, let us die to sin and live for God.”

By the same charity that it enkindles in us, the Eucharist preserves us from future mortal sins. The more we share the life of Christ and progress in his friendship, the more difficult it is to break away from him by mortal sin. The Eucharist is not ordered to the forgiveness of mortal sins—that is proper to the sacrament of Reconciliation. The Eucharist is properly the sacrament of those who are in full communion with the Church (CCC 1394-1395).

Amoris Laetitia

Last month Amoris Laetitia was released, in which the Holy Father suggests that the divorced and remarried can receive the help of the sacraments. In Chapter VIII, footnote 305 the Holy Father writes:

“Because of forms of conditioning and mitigating factors, it is possible that in an objective situation of sin – which may not be subjectively culpable, or fully such – a person can be living in God’s grace, can love and can also grow in the life of grace and charity, while receiving the Church’s help to this end.”

Because the Church’s teaching on marriage and the Eucharist cannot change as it was given to us by Christ himself and reiterated infallibly by the Council of Trent, we must read the Holy Father’s words in light of our faith and Tradition. But first, it is important to note that while divorce “introduces disorder into the family and into society” and often “brings grave harm to the deserted spouse [and]to children traumatized by the separation of their parents,” the Church recognizes that separation and even civil divorce might be necessary in some cases (CCC 2383-2385). However, the fact of divorce alone does not render one unable to receive Holy Communion—as some people mistakenly think. Rather, only when one enters into a manifestly invalid second marriage must they be refused Holy Communion (canon 915).

Therefore, returning to the words of Amoris Laetitia, someone who is in an ongoing and objectively sinful relationship (remarriage), could only receive the help of the sacraments if he or she is in a state of grace. This would be the case, for instance, if he or she has confessed the sin of adultery in the sacrament of Confession and is now living in a continent relationship with the second partner (abstaining from those acts proper to married couples) or if he or she is not morally culpable of individual sexual acts with a second spouse because of having been forced to engage in those acts. Those who have freely chosen to remarry and are freely choosing to engage in sexual acts with a second partner, however, are not free to pursue this pastoral solution to readmittance to the sacrament due to their continued intention to violate the sixth commandment.

In Familiaris Consortio, Saint John Paul II explains the eminently pastoral nature of this discipline of the Church:

However the Church reaffirms her practice, which is based upon Sacred Scripture, of not admitting to Eucharistic Communion divorced persons who have remarried. They are unable to be admitted thereto from the fact that their state and condition of life objectively contradict that union of love between Christ and the Church which is signified and effected by the Eucharist. Besides this, there is another special pastoral reason: if these people were admitted to the Eucharist, the faithful would be led into error and confusion regarding the Church’s teaching about the indissolubility of marriage. Reconciliation in the sacrament of Penance which would open the way to the Eucharist, can only be granted to those who … are sincerely ready to undertake a way of life that is no longer in contradiction to the indissolubility of marriage. This means, in practice, that … they take on themselves the duty to live in complete continence, that is, by abstinence from the acts proper to married couples (FC 84).

Any Catholic can receive the Holy Eucharist today if he or she only makes a good confession and firmly resolves to sin no more. The Good News of Jesus Christ is that not only does he freely offer the gift of his forgiveness to those who repent, confess their sins, and intend to sin no more, but he also promises us the grace to live out this original meaning of marriage!

For an excellent commentary on Amoris Laetitia and the confusion it’s created, I strongly recommend to you this statement from Bishop Athanasius Schneider, auxiliary Bishop of the Archdiocese of St. Mary in Astana, Kazakhstan. 


Copyright 2016 Meg Matenaer


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  1. tami kiser on

    Please clarify where the Pope actually suggests receiving the sacraments if you are in a state of sin– your quote suggests the Church be “help to the end” of receiving grace–but that’s not the same as receiving the sacraments. My understanding of the document is that he doesn’t. The argument is whether someone in the state of sin can receive any grace. That’s the debate. The Pope seems to infer that there may be circumstances that allow this. He is the Pope of mercy afterall. He quotes St. Thomas Aquinas and others. Some people may not be culpable for their sins. He doesn’t say “give these people communion.” He quotes from the Catechism No. 1735 “Imputability and responsibility for an action can be diminished or even nullified by ignorance, inadvertence, duress, fear, habit, inordinate attachments, and other psychological or social factors.” (Social Factors? . . .) Every case is unique and should be handled differently.

    Also correction: it is not “footnote 305” it is actually paragraph 305. that you quote in your article.

    Those of us who know divorced, remarried Catholics with families who have come back to the faith can appreciate the Pope’s love and concern for these couples. He wants the church to accompany them, include them, but he doesn’t suggest giving them the Eucharist.

    This exhortation is very clear on all the points you make in your article about what marriage is–it quotes from all the writings on the family, JPII, and the Catechism quite extensively with the added bonus of very practical advice for both families and those who administer to families. As someone who as been married almost 30 years I can really appreciate his insight and wisdom.

    I even think it gives strong exhortation to promote the true teaching of Christ about marriage.

    My hope is that articles like yours would not sway people from digging into this exhortation from our Holy Father and the Synod Fathers.

    • Hi, Tami,

      It sounds like you already are understanding the Pope’s comments in light of doctrine and have not been swayed by all of the media reports. That’s great. And you’re right, there is a lot of great stuff about marriage in Amoris Laetitia, like in Chapter 4 when the Holy Father gives great concrete advice for married couples. Also, thanks for pointing out that that was paragraph 305, not a footnote.

      Now, regarding paragraph 305 on someone “receiving the Church’s help,” footnote 351 of that same paragraph reads, “In certain cases, this can include the help of the sacraments” and mentions the Eucharist specifically. This is what gave me the impression that the pope did in fact mean to say that the divorced and remarried could receive the sacraments.

      Additionally, Cardinal Schonborn gave a press conference on Amoris Laetitia confirming this reading of the text, mentioning specifically footnote 351:

      Finally, in an interview with reporters when asked about “new possibilities” for the divorced and remarried, the Holy Father pointed them to this interview with Cardinal Schonborn as being representative of his true views.

      Of course, we all desire to see our families and loved ones taken care of and embraced by the Church. In fact, Pope St. John Paul II explicitly mentions in “Familiaris Consortio” his desire that those who are divorced and remarried be welcomed in their parish communities, even though those who are divorced and remarried (and not living as brother and sister) are unable to receive Holy Communion. There are few of us untouched by the pain of divorce, and everyone in a difficult situation would do very well to seek the guidance of his or her priest.

  2. Meg, thanks for your lovely summary of the Church’s uplifting catechesis on marriage and its indissolubility. I agree that Amoris Laetitia can be very confusing even after several readings. The way I make sense of it is in the Church’s constant teaching on the definition of mortal sin, which requires not only grave matter but also full knowledge and deliberate consent. When Pope Francis talks about subjective culpability, he seems to be referencing the requirements of knowledge and consent. Someone in a second “marriage” without benefit of an annulment is technically committing adultery — definitely “grave matter”! But if they don’t fully know or understand what they’re doing, or feel trapped and unable to act otherwise due to financial or other concerns, then they aren’t necessarily subjectively culpable. This isn’t a change in Church teaching just a shift in emphasis, focusing on something that has always been so.

    My husband and I actually just blogged about this on CatholicMom here!:

  3. Hi, Karee! Thanks for writing and for your beautiful apostolate and for sharing your article–I had come across it last month. I, too, am writing with the help of my husband, a canon lawyer.

    So, John Paul II fully understood the Church’s teaching on subjective culpability in 1981 and shortly thereafter promulgated the Catechism to which you refer. Nonetheless, he declared that the divorced and remarried cannot receive Holy Communion regardless of their subjective culpability regarding committing adultery in a second marriage.

    Keep in mind that it’s not necessarily the civil divorce that keeps them from the reception of Holy Communion. It is the intention to remain in an ongoing and habitual state of adultery. More specifically, it is the intention to continue committing adultery because if they had the intention to abstain from sexual acts even while continuing to live with the second spouse, they could receive Holy Communion.

    While individual confessors can help individual persons assess their own subjective culpability regarding those acts of adultery (acts which are contrary to the natural moral law and thus inscribed in the heart of every human person), Pope Francis has not abrogated Canon 915 which still states, “Those who have been excommunicated or interdicted after the imposition or declaration of the penalty and others obstinately persevering in manifest grave sin are not to be admitted to holy communion.”

    To your point about those who don’t fully understand what they are doing or feel trapped or those with financial concerns, John Paul II already opened for them a merciful path to receive Holy Communion, namely: to live as brother and sister. It is only those who refuse to try to abstain from the sexual act with someone who is not their spouse (i.e. the second civil spouse) that must be refused Holy Communion.

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